We look back at the Giro d’Italia top ten from 1999 to 2008 and study the impact positive dope tests and doping scandals have had on the credibility of the event.

Looking back over the past ten editions of the Giro, we have crossed through the names of all riders who have tested positive, served a suspension or were significantly linked to an anti-doping investigation at any time in their career.

Riders with question marks hanging over them are marked with asterisks.

Each rider’s offence or alleged offence is clearly explained the first time they appear in this article.

To be absolutely clear, striking through a riders name does not equal an allegation that their result in that particular race was achieved while doping. What it means is that the rider in question tested positive or was sanctioned or sacked at some point in their career, either prior or subsequently.

Back to The Wednesday Comment, September 17, 2008

LINKS

How the shadow of doping has damaged the grand tours in the past decade.

Tour de France 1999-2008

Vuelta a Espana 1998-2007

1999

1 IVAN GOTTI (Italy)

2 PAOLO SAVOLDELLI (Italy)

3 GILBERTO SIMONI (Italy) *

Tested positive for cocaine during 2002 Giro and was kicked out of the race. Claimed the substance was contained in some sweets a relative bought in South America. Later cleared by the Italian Cycling Federation

4 LAURENT JALABERT (France)

5 ROBERTO HERAS (Spain)

Tested positive for EPO at the 2006 Vuelta a Espana, which he had won. Stripped of that race win and banned for two years

6 NIKLAS AXELSSON (Sweden)

Tested positive for EPO at 2001 World Championships

7 SERGUEI GONCHAR (Ukraine)

Sacked by T-Mobile in 2007 after tests highlighted ‘irregularities’

8 DANIELE DE PAOLI (Italy)

Banned for three years after police raids on 2001 Giro d’Italia. Illegal substances were found in his suitcase

9 DANIEL CLAVERO (Spain)

10 ROBERTO SGAMBELLURI (Italy)

Tested positive for blood booster NESP, forcing him to quit the 2002 Giro

Note Marco Pantani was leading by 5-38 with two stages to go when he was withdrawn from the race with a high haematocrit level

2000

1 STEFANO GARZELLI (Italy)

Tested positive for probenicid during 2002 Giro, banned for nine months

2 FRANCESCO CASAGRANDE (Italy)

Twice tested positive for testosterone in 1998, banned for nine months

3 GILBERTO SIMONI (Italy) *

4 ANDREA NOE (Italy)

5 PAVEL TONKOV (Russia)

6 HERNAN BUENAHORA (Colombia)

Tested positive at the Vuelta al Tachira, then again at the 2008 Tour of Colombia

7 WLADIMIR BELLI (Italy)

8 JOSE LUIS RUBIERA (Spain)

9 SERGUEI GONCHAR (Ukraine)

10 LEONARDO PIEPOLI (Italy)

Cleared by Monaco Cycling Federation after salbutamol positive at the 2007 Giro d’Italia. Reported to have admitted doping to Saunier Duval management during 2008 Tour de France. Sacked for breaking team’s ethical code

2001

1 GILBERTO SIMONI (Italy) *

2 ABRAHAM OLANO (Spain)

3 UNAI OSA (Spain)

Named in Operacion Puerto documents in 2006

4 SERGUEI GONCHAR (Ukraine)

5 JOSE AZEVEDO (Portugal)

6 ANDREA NOE (Italy)

7 IVAN GOTTI (Italy)

8 CARLO ALBERTO CONTRERAS (Colombia)

9 PIETRO CAUCCHIOLI (Italy)

10 GIULIANO FIGUERAS (Italy)

Banned in 2002 following the San Remo raids at the Giro

2002

1 PAOLO SAVOLDELLI (Italy)

2 TYLER HAMILTON (USA)

Tested positive for a banned blood transfusion at the 2004 Athens Olympics, where he won the time trial, and again at the Vuelta a Espana a month later. Kept his gold medal because he successfully argued that the sample had been damaged in frozen storage. Banned for the Vuelta offence but fought a long defence. Also named in Operacion Puerto documents but has not been investigated for that. Now racing for Rock Racing

3 PIETRO CAUCCHIOLI (Italy)

4 JUAN MANUEL GARATE (Spain)

5 PAVEL TONKOV (Russia)

6 AITOR GONZALEZ (Spain)

Banned for two years after failing two tests in 2005 for an anabolic steroid

7 GEORG TOTSCHNIG (Austria)

8 FERNANDO ESCARTIN (Spain)

9 RIK VERBRUGGHE (Belgium)

10 DARIO FRIGO (Italy)

Drugs found in his hotel room during the 2001 Giro. Kicked out of the 2005 Tour de France when his wife’s car was stopped by police, searched and found to contain EPO

2003

1 GILBERTO SIMONI (Italy) *

2 STEFANO GARZELLI (Italy)

3 YAROSLAV POPOVYCH (Ukraine)

4 ANDREA NOE (Italy)

5 GEORG TOTSCHNIG (Austria)

6 RAIMONDAS RUMSAS

His wife Edita was stopped in her car as she tried to drive from France to Italy after the Tour. Performance-enhancing drugs were found in the car, which she said were for her mother-in-law. Rumsas failed a doped test for EPO at the 2003 Giro d’Italia, where he was sixth overall. He was banned for a year

7 DARIO FRIGO (Italy)

8 SERGUEI GONCHAR (Ukraine)

9 FRANCO PELLIZOTTI (Italy)

10 EDDY MAZZOLENI (Italy)

Finished third in the Giro in 2007. Suspended by Astana shortly afterwards. Later banned for two years for his involvement in the Dr Carlo Santuccione case. Then announced his retirement

2004

1 DAMIANO CUNEGO (Italy)

2 SERGUEI GONCHAR (Ukraine)

3 GILBERTO SIMONI (Italy) *

4 DARIO CIONI (Italy)

5 YAROSLAV POPOVYCH (Ukraine)

6 STEFANO GARZELLI (Italy)

7 WLADIMIR BELLI (Italy)

8 BRADLEY McGee (Australia)

9 TADEJ VALJAVEC (Slovenia)

10 JUAN MANUEL GARATE (Spain)

2005

1 PAOLO SAVOLDELLI (Italy)

2 GILBERTO SIMONI (Italy) *

3 JOSE RUJANO (Venezuela)

4 DANILO DI LUCA (Italy)

Banned for three months in October 2007 for associating with a banned doctor, Dr Carlo Santuccione

5 JUAN MANUEL GARATE (Spain)

6 SERGUEI GONCHAR (Ukraine)

7 VLADIMIR KARPETS (Russia)

8 PIETRO CAUCCHIOLI (Italy)

9 MARZIO BRUSEGHIN (Italy)

10 EMANUELE SELLA (Colombia)

Tested positive for CERA, a so-called third generation EPO, at a race in late July 2008

2006

1 IVAN BASSO (Italy)

Named in the Operacion Puerto documents as a client of Dr Fuentes. Sent home before the start of the 2006 Tour, then left CSC ‘by mutual consent’. Signed for Discovery Channel but raced only a couple of times before being banned. Didn’t admit doping but did admit thinking about doing so. Signed for Liquigas and will return to racing in October 2008

2 JOSE ENRIQUE GUTIERREZ (Spain)

Named in Operacion Puerto documents in 2006

3 GILBERTO SIMONI (Italy) *

4 DAMIANO CUNEGO (Italy)

5 PAOLO SAVOLDELLI (Italy)

6 SANDY CASAR (France)

7 JUAN MANUEL GARATE (Spain)

8 FRANCO PELLIZOTTI (Italy)

9 VICTOR HUGO PENA (Colombia)

10 FRANCISCO VILA (Spain)

Tested positive for testosterone in 2008. Sacked by Lampre

2007

1 DANILO DI LUCA (Italy)

2 ANDY SCHLECK (Luxembourg)

3 EDDY MAZZOLENI (Italy)

4 GILBERTO SIMONI (Italy) *

5 DAMIANO CUNEGO (Italy)

6 RICCARDO RICCO (Italy)

Tested positive for CERA, a third-generation EPO, at the 2008 Tour de France

7 EVGENI PETROV (Russia)

Kicked out of the Tour 2005 for a high haematocrit level

8 MARZIO BRUSEGHIN (Italy)

9 FRANCO PELLIZOTTI (Italy)

10 DAVID ARROYO (Spain)

2008

1 ALBERTO CONTADOR (Spain) *

Alleged to be the rider referred to as AC in the Operacion Puerto documents. Vehemently denies he was involved and is allowed to race on

2 RICCARDO RICCO (Italy)

3 MARZIO BRUSEGHIN (Italy)

4 FRANCO PELLIZOTTI (Italy)

5 DENIS MENCHOV (Russia)

6 EMANUELE SELLA (Italy)

7 JURGEN VAN DEN BROECK (Belgium) Silence-Lotto

8 DANILO DI LUCA (Italy)

9 DOMENICO POZZOVIVO (Italy)

10 GILBERTO SIMONI (Italy) *