Valverde is one of seven riders from the Movistar squad to make the list, while Rodriguez's Katusha boast three of the others.
There is no place for Astana's Mikel Landa, however, or Alberto Contador, who ended his season after the Tour de France.
Spain's riches in the WorldTour doesn't mean their Pro Continental teams don't get a look in, with Caja Rural's Angel Madrazo and Lluis Mas both included in the list.
Valverde has won the bronze medal in the past three World Championships road races, with his best result being second in both 2003 and 2005. Rodriguez was second to Rui Costa in Florence in 2013 and third in 2009.
Spain has not won road race gold since Oscar Freire won his third and final title in 2004 in Verona.
Spanish longlist for World Championships
Alejandro Valverde, Jon Izagirre, Juan José Lobato, Imanol Erviti, Jonathan Castroviejo, Gorka Izagirre, José Joaquín Rojas (all Movistar), Joaquim Rodríguez, Dani Moreno, Angel Vicioso (all Katusha), Luis León Sánchez (Astana), Rubén Plaza (Lampre-Merida), Angel Madrazo and Lluis Más (both Caja Rural)
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