The 31-year-old was known to be leaving Etixx-Quick Step at the end of the 2016 season but he'd been expected to form part of the German Bora-Hansgrohe squad, which will be WorldTour from the start of 2017.
The announcement from Katusha praises Martin's versatility in a range of races. He's best known for his time trialling, in which he is a three time world champion.
Riding for Etixx, Martin's chances of leading a Classic were always going to be sparse but pairing up with Alexander Kristoff at his new team could open up a raft of new possibilities.
"I am excited to come to this strong team," Martin said. "Team Katusha showed last year that it was a winning team and, honestly, I really like the Katusha jersey.
"Moreover, I also really like their Canyon bikes, and this is important for me as a TT rider."
Pointing to the possibility of being able to go for his own results in road races as well as time trials, Martin added: "What convinced me the most to make the move was the fact that the team directors and the team manager really believe in me. I will be able to obtain more results than I have had so far. They have convinced me that I can still improve."
However, he won't be relinquishing his team duties entirely. "On the other hand, and like in previous years, if I can help a teammate win, I will be just as happy."
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