A triathlon race is made up of three disciplines: swimming, cycling and running. It's an endurance sport, with a wide range of distance options to choose from.
The long running joke cemented by the Velominati rule Rule 42 (a bike race shall never be preceded with a swim and/or followed by a run) might put some cyclists off the idea of the three pronged sport. But there is a tremendous cross over between triathlon and cycling and many of the best riders have either come from triathlon or chosen to turn their hand to it after leaving a career on the bike.
With Age Group races (eg more competitive events) now permitting drafting there is an even greater similarity as the bike leg looks much like a criterium race.
Most triathlons, however, are non-drafting.
Whilst the British Triathlon Federation (BTF) Age Group structure - in which amateurs compete to go to National, European and World Championships - can provide a clear structure and motivation for competitive triathletes, a huge number of competitors enjoy taking part purely to race themselves.
Triathlon training is varied, and often completed in groups - taking part provides motivation for those looking to gain fitness and confidence through racing.
Triathlon course distances
Triathlons are comprised of a swim, bike and run leg. There are also Aquathlons (swim and run) and Duathlons (run, bike, run). But let's focus on the three sport option.
Distances can very however - traditional classifications are:
|Super sprint triathlon||500m||10km||2.5km|
|Standard / Olympic distance triathlon||1.5km||40km||10km|
|Ironman triathlon||3.9km||180km||42km (marathon)|
The distances above represent six incredibly different races.
Someone training for a sprint triathlon is going to have a very different schedule when compared to an athlete preparing for an Ironman event.
However, all triathlon races are endurance events. Athletes will focus on improving their ability to hold a fairly high intensity for an extended period of time. Ideally, you'll want to work out which zone you should be racing in - then train that physiology by completing sessions featuring intervals above it for shorter durations.
Aside from that, it's difficult to advise on intensities, sessions, volume and recovery without specifying the distance of the target events.
However, some key considerations exist across all distances...
Triathlon swim training
When it comes to swimming, proper form is crucial. You can have the best fitness in the world, and be much slower than someone who hardly trains but has impeccable form. If you're new to swimming, it's advisable that you attend some coached sessions - either at a local swimming or triathlon club or 1-on-1 at a leisure centre.
Some shorter events use a pool swim for the race. In this case, tumble turns are not allowed - touch turns only. You'll be seeded largely in speed order, but if you need to pass someone in the race you just tap their toes.
At other events, the swim is in open water. In these cases drafting makes a huge difference - so you want to practice being able to latch on to a fast swimmer and stay there. The start is often described as a 'washing machine' - and it might take a couple of races to get used to this, as well as the cold which can take some acclimatisation.
In an open water event, you'll need to 'sight' - eg make sure you're swimming in the right direction. So practice this by aiming at buoys in a lake or stretch of sea. You'll likely be wearing a wetsuit, which means your legs are more buoyant and therefore the swim is powered largely be your arms - you can practice this by swimming without kicking in the pool.
In short - when it comes to swimming, form is key. And if you're entering an open water triathlon, don't just focus on form and fitness - practice in the open water as the technical skills of sighting and drafting can only really be learned there.
Triathlon bike training
If you come from a cycling background, this might feel like the easy bit. It's also often the longest bit, and therefore the leg during which you can make up the most time.
You're training for a steady effort over the distance - so if it's an Olympic distance event (40km/25miles) you're training will look a lot like the preperation a time triallist would use - with sessions like the FTP/threshold focused 2 x 20 minute effort and shorter 4 x 5 minute sessions to boost power.
If you're racing a sprint, you'd focus on slightly shorter efforts, and those competing in longer distances might want to think about 2 x 40 or 3 x 20 minute intervals to prepare them for long distances around FTP/threshold.
Triathlon run training
Running is weight bearing - and thus it's the discipline where people are most likely to experience injuries. Therefore, if you're new to running it's important that you build up slowly. Adding a little core strength work into your routine may also help you to stay injury free.
Your run sessions will again vary depending upon your chosen distance.
If you're competing at a Sprint or Olympic distance event then you could benefit from training at an athletics track with a running or triathlon club - they will incorporate intervals on the track into their training and these can really help with leg speed, plus a coach will be able to check your form.
Those competing in longer events will put a focus on the long run - this will be a weekly excursion and you'll aim to gradually increase your distance over time.
Often referred to as the fourth discipline of triathlon. Transition is the area between swim and bike, and bike and run.
Competitive triathletes get on to their bike using a 'flying mount' and get off with a 'flying dismount' - this looks a lot like a cyclocross mount/dismount - except the athlete is soaking wet when mounting and the shoes are readily attached to the pedals allowing for a quick get away.
If you're not confident, you're better of just getting on the bike in the normal manner as 20 seconds saved isn't worth the risk of crashing.
The bike to run transition often leaves the racer with a feeling of dead legs. With practice, this feeling will fade - and you can prepare for it with weekly 'Brick Sessions' - this means completing a turbo session and then jumping off the bike and heading out for a run. It'll feel painful at first but with practice your muscles will get used to it - so it's better to prepare in training than wait till race day.
A triathlon training week
Training volume, recovery and focus is personal - there is no typical. And as mentioned, training will vary dramatically depending upon the target distance and the athlete in question.
You'll also want to tailor your training to your strengths and weaknesses - for example, if you're strong on the bike and a weak runner, then the toughest sessions should be run intervals and you can use the bike for recovery.
However, if you're looking for a bit of inspiration, or a very loose idea of a training schedule, this is an example week for an Age Group triathlete in their 20s/30s, training for an Olympic distance triathlon. Of course, volume will vary through the year and taper off before events.
|Monday||Swim session, tempo: 100m, 200m, 300m, 400m, 300m, 200m, 100m||30 minutes core in the gym|
|Tuesday||Brick session - Bike: 10min warm up, 2 x 20min intervals, Run: 15min|
|Wednesday||Club swim - 500m warm up, 500m drills (form!), 10 x 100m intervals, 500m cool down||Bike: 10-15 minute warm up, 4x5min effort, 5min recovery, cool down|
|Thursday||Track run - 10-20 min warm up, 12 x 400m intervals, 10-20 min cool down|
|Friday||Rest||30 minutes easy core|
|Saturday||Long ride - 2-3 hours|
|Sunday||Long run - 60 - 90 minutes|
What do you need to race a triathlon?
Well - how long is a piece of string? You can race a triathlon on an entry level road bike, wearing trainers - or you can spend a fortune on the best triathlon bike, wetsuit and tri-suit money can buy. Here's a look at the key components...
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What are you supposed to wear for a sport where you swim, bike, and run?
You can choose to wear a swimming costume/swimming shorts during the swim leg, pulling on cycling kit in transition. However, you can save time and be more comfortable by wearing a triathlon suit that is designed to be worn across all disciplines.
Triathlon suits are either sleeveless, or have flexible shoulder panels. They're quick drying, and the chamois is much thinner than that found in cycling shorts - this is more comfortable on the run.
You'll need to display your number throughout the bike and run. If you're putting on layers in transition, this can go on your vest or jersey. If you're wearing a triathlon suit, you can purchase a race belt to attach your number to.
You can race a triathlon on any road worthy bike - an entry level entry level road bike will be more than adequate.
In non-drafting events, you can save a lot of time and be more competitive by riding a time trial bike - this gives you a more aerodynamic position.
The in-between option is riding a road bike with clip on aero bars - ideally when fitting these, adjust the rest of your bike, sliding the saddle forwards and dropping the front end to increase the aero gains.
Riding a triathlon bike or using clip on bars increases the amount of pressure place on soft tissue. There are triathlon specific saddles like the noseless ISM, and if you find you're uncomfortable on a normal saddle this could be a worthwhile investment.
>>> Buyer's guide to men's bike saddles
What is faster uphill: an aero road bike or a lightweight bike?
You're not allowed to take your bike from the racking in transition until you've put on your cycling helmet - so a basic lid is a requirement.
You can slice off a little time with a long-tailed time-trial specific helmet - and if you're going to spend cash on a bike then we'd advise you invest here, too, as the time saving can be dramatic.
What is faster: a time trial helmet or a standard road helmet?
Triathlon cycling shoes
Even if you are taking part in a short distance triathlon it is highly recommended that you use clipless pedals and bike shoes. Further, if you want to be at the sharp end of the race you’ll want to consider tri-specific shoes, because you can save minutes on your overall time with swift transitions.
Triathlon cycling shoes are designed to make it easier for you to get your feet in and out of the shoes while riding — they do this by having a single wide strap, large opening and a loop on the heel.
If you're really serious you can use elastic bands to keep your shoes horizontal for when you race out of the first transition at speed.
See how important your number position is
The swim leg, which can be in a pool or in open water, is often the most daunting aspect of a triathlon for cyclists. Having the right equipment will definitely make you feel more confident.
If swimming in open water, subject to water temperature restrictions, you will need to wear a wet suit— a tri-specific wet suit is strongly recommended.
A wet suit could substantially improve your swimming as it increases your buoyancy. Your legs will float more than they would without one - many triathletes rely more on their arms in the open water, saving their legs for the next two legs.
Entry level tri-specific wet suits tend to be made from thicker neoprene, which keeps you warm and more buoyant in the water. More advanced swimmers often opt for wet suits using thinner neoprene, especially around the shoulders, to allow more flexibility.
Wiggle's in house brand, dhb, recently moved into the wetsuit territory and have options available for under £100 for both men and women.
A good pair of goggles is essential. You definitely don’t want a pair that leaks or mists up. Though entry level in terms of price, we've had some success with Decathlon's own in house brand Nabaiji. However, it's worth noting that google preferences vary depending upon face shape.
You can get specific open water goggles. The defining feature of these is that they have wider lenses, to allow for greater peripheral vision. If you expect to be swimming on overcast days, clear lenses are best. If bright sun is likely, mirrored lenses will protect your eyes and vision from glare - and you can also get polarised lenses for particularly bright days.
Unless you expect to be off the front, then you'll need to account for the washing-machine-effect of lots of moving arms. With that in mind, soft lenses with rubber around them are a good choice (compared to hard lenses which could hurt if elbowed).
The majority of events provide swim caps, but it is advisable to come prepared with your own good quality cap to keep your head warm. Some people wear a swim cap on their head, then put their goggles on over the top, before using a second swim cap to keep it all in place on an open water swim.
Triathlon running kit
The run is the final challenge. There is a saying that "there is no such thing as a bad run off a good bike", meaning that the skill of a good cycle leg also includes saving enough energy for the run afterwards.
It is highly recommended for you to have suitable trainers for the run, whether it is on tarmac or off-road. As you get more advanced you may want to consider using elastic laces — not spending time doing up your laces is a great way to shave seconds of your overall time.
If you want to track your performance throughout the whole event you might want to buy a multi-sport watch similar to the Garmin Epix.
If you do not have a tri-suit, you will need to ensure your torso is covered for the run. You could use a bike jersey or a running vest.
Michelle Arthurs-Brennan is Cycling Weekly's Tech Editor, and is responsible for managing the tech news and reviews both on the website and in Cycling Weekly magazine.
A traditional journalist by trade, Arthurs-Brennan began her career working for a local newspaper, before spending a few years at Evans Cycles, then combining writing and her love of bicycles first at Total Women's Cycling and then Cycling Weekly.
When not typing up reviews, news, and interviews Arthurs-Brennan is a road racer who also enjoys track riding and the occasional time trial, though dabbles in off-road riding too (either on a mountain bike, or a 'gravel bike'). She is passionate about supporting grassroots women's racing and founded the women's road race team 190rt.
She rides bikes of all kinds, but favourites include a custom carbon Werking road bike as well as the Specialized Tarmac SL6.
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