Froome maintained his place with new race leader Richie Porte (BMC Racing) on the 8.7km climb and launched an attack on the descent.
"Mentally, it was a bit of an unknown," Froome said. "I've never done that descent before, I've never seen it.
"There's been so much made of that descent. About how dangerous it was. When I went for it, I thought, 'This can go one of two ways here.'
"Honestly, it was quite a bit fun, like playing a computer game around all the corners."
The same climb and descent will be used in the Tour de France's stage nine this July, when Froome will try to win his fourth title.
Froome's top rival appears to be his former team-mate, Australian Richie Porte. Porte moved in to the overall lead on stage six after the two climbed together and descended with Astana's Fabio Aru and Jakob Fuglsang.
Thanks to his gains with his time trial win two days ago on stage four and his second place behind Fuglsang, Porte took over the yellow jersey from early leader Thomas De Gendt (Lotto-Soudal).
Froome sits second overall at 39 seconds; the losses from the time trial.
Froome had tried to take his first win of the 2017 season on Friday, but Fuglsang pulled him back on the descent, he led out and sprinted.
Fuglsang, however, came around on his left for the win and Porte on his right for second place.
"I would be lying if I said I would be happy with third in the sprint," said Froome. "I was really hoping to get the stage win but I think I was a bit too eager in the last, doing a bit too much work chasing Jakob Fuglsang.
"Then starting the sprint a little to far out myself," Froome added.
"All in all, I'm happy with how it went. It could've gone much worse. At least I was in front, the legs are good and I'm happy to be up there with Richie at the moment, who's in amazing form.
"I think I still have quite a bit of work to do , but I think things are heading in the right direction and that today's climb will show that I'm at least on track for July."
Froome's last win came in the 2016 Vuelta a España, when he won the time trial stage on September 9. He began the Critérium du Dauphiné following a training camp at altitude on the Spanish island of Tenerife.
"I didn't need it [this performance], but it's nice to know that I'm there or there abouts with Richie, who's probably the strongest climber at the moment," he said.
"Second on GC, I'm happy to be there, but fully conscious that there's two really big days coming up and recovery will be everything for Saturday and Sunday."
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